iTech Labs - Game Output Audits

Introduction

iTech Labs has been engaged by many casino operators to conduct regular independent audits of game outcomes. We conduct two kinds of game output audits - Return To Player (RTP) calculations and Random Number Generator (RNG) output analyses. Both use actual game data from the game servers. RTP audits are conducted for all casino games to assure players and casino operators that the game payouts continue to be close to their theoretical expectations. RNG audits are generally done for multiplayer card games, dice games and ball games to assure that the cards/dice/balls continue to be random. These audits are generally done monthly and the audit reports are published on the gaming site. They are hot linked to the original reports at the iTech Labs site. The RTP and RNG audits provide the players added confidence that the games are subject to external scrutiny, and remains fair.

RTP and RNG audits

RTP audit: Total bets and wins for each game/game type are calculated after extracting the relevant data from the game logs. The actual RTPs (percentages of total actual winnings to bets for each game/game type) are then calculated. The actual RTPs for card games are compared against theoretical RTPs. Overall RTP for all games is also calculated.

RNG audit: This is usually done for multiplayer card games, dice games and ball games. For example, for an RNG audit of Poker games, the decks of cards dealt are extracted from the game logs and actual probability for various game related events (e.g., Royal flush, Straight flush, Dealer blackjack, Player blackjack) are calculated and compared against theoretical probabilities. The actual card distribution for ranks and suits is also calculated and compared against theoretical probabilities. Similar analyses is done for dice games and ball games.

iTech Labs conducts a number of sanity checks to ensure that the data extracted from game logs are consistent and complete. This is achieved by analyzing the distribution and pattern of data for the period of evaluation.

What are the deliverables for a RTP/RNG audit?

For a RTP/RNG audit, our deliverables are the following:

  • A certification seal\logo to be placed on your gaming site.
  • A linked certificate showing results of the audit. The original certificate is maintained at the iTech Labs web site to verify authenticity.

Submission requirements

Game logs need to be sent monthly. For RTP audits, bets and wins up to the player session level for each game is required. For RNG audits, information on cards/dice/balls for each game is required. For example. for a Poker game, cards dealt (preferably the full shuffled deck) for each game is required. We conduct sanity checks on the data received, so abnormalities in the data supplied will be identified.

How to start the process?

We offer excellent value for a quality service at a fixed price. E-mail us details of your systems (e.g., URLs, number and types of games), types of audits (e.g., RTP, RNG) and the frequency required. We will prepare a fixed price proposal for your consideration. After acceptance of the proposal, you can start sending the game logs. In some jurisdictions we may have to supervise remotely extraction of data. We invoice monthly for the previous months work.

Example of an RTP audit report

This is to confirm that iTech Labs has examined the casino game logs in the gaming system of Gaming Company for the month of Month, 2014 as recorded by the respective game servers. iTech Labs has calculated the Return To Player (RTP) for all the games using the data from the game logs.

The table below lists calculated RTP's for real games played at the Gaming Company game servers. These game servers service the following internet gaming sites:
www.xxxx.com www.yyyy.com www.zzzz.com

Game NameActual RTP
Baccarat 99.82%
Blackjack 97.80%
Roulette 97.25%
Video Poker 96.27%
Craps 96.44%
Slots 95.20%
Average payout for all games 96.90%

The actual RTPs shown are percentages of total actual winnings to bets for each game type. They do not reflect outcomes for individual games or future games. iTech Labs has completed limited sanity checks to verify the integrity of the game logs. iTech Labs also maintains a copy of the game logs for verification purposes. There were a large enough number of game records to give the RTP calculations sufficient statistical power.

Example of a Poker RNG Output audit report

1. Actual and theoretical probabilities for various Poker hands

These calculations were done for Royal Flush, Straight Flush, Four of a Kind, Full House, Flush, Straight, 3 of a Kind, 2 pairs, 1 Pair, High Card. The following table compares the observed proportion of times the various types of hands occurred (Sample column). Probability column shows the theoretical values. Lower and Upper are the 95% confidence limits.

HandsProbabilityLowerSampleUpper
Royal Flush 0.00003 0.00003 0.00003 0.00003
Straight Flush 0.00028 0.00027 0.00028 0.00029
4 of a kind 0.00168 0.00167 0.00168 0.00169
Full House 0.02596 0.02591 0.02598 0.02601
Flush 0.03025 0.03020 0.03024 0.03030
Straight 0.04619 0.04613 0.04623 0.04625
3 of a kind 0.04830 0.04824 0.04824 0.04836
2 pairs 0.23496 0.23483 0.23505 0.23509
1 pair 0.43823 0.43808 0.43823 0.43838
High Card 0.17412 0.17401 0.17404 0.17423
  1.00000      

Comments on analyses of Odds on Various hands:

All observed probabilities (Sample column) are within the 95% confidence limits. The results indicate statistical randomness for various Poker hands.

2. Actual and theoretical probabilities for Ranks

The theoretical probabilities for the ranks are shown in the Probability column. The Sample column shows observed probabilities. Lower and Upper are the 95% confidence limits.

RankProbabilityLowerSampleUpper
A 0.07692 0.07689 0.07694 0.07695
2 0.07692 0.07689 0.07692 0.07695
3 0.07692 0.07689 0.07692 0.07695
4 0.07692 0.07689 0.07691 0.07695
5 0.07692 0.07689 0.07691 0.07695
6 0.07692 0.07689 0.07691 0.07695
7 0.07692 0.07689 0.07693 0.07695
8 0.07692 0.07689 0.07694 0.07695
9 0.07692 0.07689 0.07694 0.07695
10 0.07692 0.07689 0.07692 0.07695
J 0.07692 0.07689 0.07689 0.07695
Q 0.07692 0.07689 0.07692 0.07695
K 0.07692 0.07689 0.07693 0.07695

Comments on analyses of Ranks:

The observed probabilities (Sample column) are within acceptable limits. The results indicate statistical randomness for ranks.

Actual and theoretical probabilities for Suits

The theoretical probabilities for the suits are shown in the Probability column. The Sample column shows observed probabilities. Lower and Upper are the 95% confidence limits.

SuitProbabilityLowerSampleUpper
Clubs 0.25000 0.24995 0.25000 0.25005
Diamonds 0.25000 0.24995 0.25000 0.25005
Hearts 0.25000 0.24995 0.24996 0.25005
Spade 0.25000 0.24995 0.25004 0.25005

Comments on analyses of distribution of Suits:

All observed frequencies are within acceptable limits. The results indicate statistical randomness for suits.

 

Please contact us for additional information